A sign is something other people, like a doctor, notice while a symptom is something that the patient describes. To give an example, enlarged pupils can be a sign, whilst sleepiness can be a symptom.
Substance dependence is when someone is addicted to a something like drugs or alcohol and they are not able to control their use of the substance. They keep taking it, despite the fact that it might bring about mischief (the individual could conceivably know about the potential damage).
Being dependant on a substance can lead to strong cravings. The person addicted may be willing to stop taking it, but they are not able on their own.
The clues and indicators that someone is addicted differ from one person to the other, depend on the drug, the genes of the individual and status in life.
Some signs and symptoms of abuse could be:
The individual takes the substance and can't stop - as a rule, for example, nicotine, liquor or drug dependence, at least one genuine endeavour was made to surrender, however unsuccessfully.
Withdrawal side effects - when body levels of that substance go beneath a specific level the patient has physical and disposition related manifestations. There are urges, spells of moodiness, fits of rage, poor concentration, a feeling of being sad and empty, anger, resentment and frustration.
The person's appetite may suddenly go high. Lack of sleep could also be an indication of withdrawal. Sometimes the individual may have constipation or diarrhoea. With a few substances, withdrawal can trigger viciousness, trembling, seizures, fantasies and sweats.
Though the addicts witness these health issues, they continue to abuse those substances - even when they start suffering ailments as a result. Example is a smoker not giving up smoking even when they have been diagnosed of a related heart or lung disease.
Social as well as recreational sacrifices - a few exercises are surrendered due to a dependence on something. For instance, a heavy drinker may reject an invitation to go outdoors or spend a day out on a boat if no alcohol is accessible, a smoker may choose not to join up with companions in a sans smoke bar or eatery.
Maintaining a good supply - even when there is no money, addicts will always ensure that they have enough quantity of the substance they are addicted to. They will cut on house spending to buy the drugs.
Taking risks (1) - some of the addicts may go as far as prostituting or stealing in the bid to raise money for the substance.
Taking risks (2) - driving at a higher speed is one of the risks the addict may easily take when they have taken the substance.
Dealing with problems - they always have the belief that they cannot handle their issues without drugs.
Obsession - figuring out the best way to access their substance and how to use it may occupy a greater part of their time and energy
Serenely and isolation - much of the time the addict may take their substance alone and even in mystery.
Denial - most people suffering from addiction refuse to admit it. They (are oblivious of or) ignore the fact that they are in danger.
Excess consumption - in addictions involving alcohol and some substance, the addict uses in excess. Some noticeable health symptoms like persistent cough, sore throat and blackouts that erase part of their memory could be the case.
Dropping hobbies and activities - with time, the person may start shying away from those activities that makes him happy before. This can even happen to smokers who discover that they can't physically do the sports or outdoor activities that the once enjoyed.
Having stashes - the dependent individual may have little supplies of their substance shrouded away in various parts of the house or auto; frequently in improbable spots.
Binging - Taking a lot of the substance at the beginning. The addict will usually take a lot of the substance quickly so that they get the effect fast.
Clashing with the law - this is more typical of certain alcohol and drug dependencies (e.g. not nicotine). This can be because being on the substance impairs the user's judgement and they engage in risk taking behaviour or because the addict breaks the law to get a hold of the substance.
Financial difficulties - the addicts will be willing to pay whatever it costs to access the substance if the substance is expensive. For instance, in most of the western world a packet of twenty cigarettes costs more than '11, if an addict smokes two packs a day, they will need '660 monthly and about '8,000 annually.
Relationship issues - these problems are more typical with alcohol or drug dependency.
Some substance/liquor abusers who are not actually dependent may likewise experience the ill effects of or cause a portion of the portrayals specified above, yet they don't more often than not have the withdrawal manifestations of someone who is addicted or a similar impulse to devour the substance.